1.9. Diagnostics of malfunctions

Introduction

Owners of the cars which are honestly making procedures for maintenance of the car according to the schedule should not address this Chapter often.

Reliability of modern components of the car such is that their wear or damages easily are defined at periodic surveys by the set time intervals. Sudden unexpected damages are extremely rare. Malfunctions usually are not result of sudden breakage, and develop during a certain period. Characteristic symptoms of the main mechanical malfunctions are usually shown for many hundreds, and sometimes even thousands of miles before breakage. Components capable it is unexpected to fail in your car usually are insignificant and easily replaced.

First of all it is necessary to decide from where to begin investigation. It is sometimes obvious, but small detective work in certain cases is required. Feverish carrying out a poludyuzhina of casual adjustments and replacements can result in success, however most often leads only to removal of a symptom, but not to elimination of the reason, repeated emergence of malfunction can cause considerably a big waste of time and means. Finally much more effective is quiet logical approach to malfunction definition.

Always it is necessary to pay attention to any anomalies in operation of your car preceding emergence of malfunction - falling of power, the underestimated or overestimated indications of devices, unusual smells and so forth - you remember that the refusal of such elements as safety locks or spark plugs can be pointed out more deeply lying malfunctions only.

Information given below is diagnostics of the most general and often found malfunctions of separate elements of the car. Possible malfunctions and their reasons are broken on blocks, components and systems of the car such as engine, cooling system and so forth. Chapters and sections of the Management concerning causes of defect are specified in brackets near the possible reasons.

The main approach to any sort of malfunction is uniform:

Make sure available malfunctions.

It means only that you realize about existence of symptoms of malfunction before getting to work. Especially important it is at diagnostics of malfunction for the stranger who can not always precisely describe symptoms.

Do not pass obvious. For example, if the engine is not started, do not forget to check whether there is in a gasoline tank a fuel. (Do not take anybody the word and do not trust indications of the sensor). With electric malfunction before getting a tester, make sure of lack of breaks and weakening of fastening of plugs.

You treat a disease, but not a symptom.

Replacement of the discharged battery by new will allow you again to begin to use the car, however, if the battery discharge cause is not removed, then the new battery is expected by the same fate. The same concerns also replacement of the candles which are filled in with oil. Remember that the cause of defect has to be always established and eliminated.

Take nothing on trust.

Remember that the "new" component itself can be defective (especially if it a long time dangled in a luggage carrier), never omit check of a component only because it is new or svezhevosstanovlenny. Very often after definition of difficult malfunction you can come to conclusion that everything was obvious from the very beginning.

Engine

The engine is not turned at start

1. Clips on plugs of batteries (The head weakened or skorrodirovat Routine maintenance).
2. The battery is discharged or faulty (The head Sistemy of start and a charge).
3. Wires in a starting contour are torn off or disconnected or their fastening on plugs (The head Sistemy of start and a charge) weakened.
4. The electromagnetic actuator or the switch of a starter (The head Sistemy of start and a charge) is not serviceable.
5. The starter (The head Sistemy of start and a charge) is faulty.
6. There was a side play or teeth on a gear wheel of a starter or a flywheel / a driving disk (The head Remont of the engine or System of start and a charge) are broken off.
7. The tire of grounding of the engine (The head Sistemy of start and a charge) is torn off or disconnected.

The starter too slowly turns the engine

1. The battery (Recharge the battery, use start from a foreign source or towage) (The head Sistemy of start and a charge) is partially discharged.
2. Battery plugs (The head weakened or korrodirovat Routine maintenance).
3. Grounding of the battery on the case (The head Sistemy of start and a charge) is not provided.
4. Fastenings of tires of grounding of the engine (The head Sistemy of start and a charge) are weakened.
5. Fastening of wires of a starter or the magnetic actuator (The head Sistemy of start and a charge) is weakened.
6. Internal defect of a starter (Head Sistemy of start and charge).

The engine is turned, but not started

1. Empty gasoline tank.
2. The battery (the engine is turned slowly) (The head Sistemy of start and a charge) is discharged.
3. Battery plugs (The head weakened or korrodirovat Routine maintenance).
4. Ignition contour components are humidified or damaged (Heads Routine maintenance and System of ignition).
5. Fastenings of wires of a contour of ignition are torn off, disconnected or weakened (Heads Routine maintenance and System of ignition).
6. Spark plugs are worn-out or damaged or the candle gap is incorrectly exposed (The head Routine maintenance).
7. Malfunction of system of injection of fuel (Head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
8. Serious mechanical malfunction (for example, the distributive chain is torn off) (The head Remont of the engine).

The complicated start of the cold engine

1. The battery (The head Sistemy of start and a charge) is discharged.
2. Clips of plugs of the battery (The head weakened or skorrodirovat Routine maintenance).
3. Spark plugs are worn-out or damaged or the candle gap is incorrectly exposed (The head Routine maintenance).
4. Malfunction of system of injection of fuel (Head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
5. Other malfunctions of system of ignition (Head Routine maintenance and System of ignition).
6. The lowered compression in cylinders (The head Remont of the engine).

The complicated start of the hot engine

1. The element of the air filter is polluted or hammered (The head Routine maintenance).
2. Malfunction of system of injection of fuel (Head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
3. The lowered compression in cylinders (The head Remont of the engine).

Gnash at rotation of a starter or its excessively sharp gearing

1. Teeth of a gear wheel of a starter or a flywheel / a driving disk are broken off or the side play in their gearing (Heads Remont of the engine or System of start and a charge) appeared.
2. The bolt of fastening of a starter (The head Sistemy of start and a charge) is weakened or dropped out.
3. Wear or damage of internal components of a starter (Head Sistemy of start and charge).

The engine is started, but at once becomes deaf

1. Connections in an electric chain of system of ignition are weakened or damaged (Heads Routine maintenance and System of ignition).
2. Leak of vacuum in the case of a throttle or the inlet pipeline (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
3. Damage to system of injection of fuel (Head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).

Uncertain operation of the engine idling

1. Wrong adjustment of turns of idling (Head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
2. The element of the air filter is hammered (The head Routine maintenance).
3. Leak of vacuum in the case of a throttle, the inlet pipeline or in connecting hoses (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
4. Spark plugs are worn-out or damaged or the candle gap is incorrectly exposed (The head Routine maintenance).
5. The unequal or lowered compression in cylinders (The head Remont of the engine).
6. Cam-shaft cams (The head Remont of the engine) are worn-out.
7. Malfunction of system of injection of fuel (Head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).

Admissions of ignition during the operation of the engine idling

1. Spark plugs are worn-out or damaged or the candle gap is incorrectly exposed (The head Routine maintenance).
2. High-voltage wires of spark plugs or knot of direct ignition (DI cartridge) are faulty if it is established (The head Routine maintenance).
3. Leak of vacuum in the case of a throttle of the inlet pipeline or connecting hoses (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
4. The system of injection of fuel is faulty (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
5. The distributor cover is burst or has internal breakdowns (where it is established) (The head Routine maintenance).
6. The unequal or lowered compression in cylinders (The head Remont of the engine).
7. Hoses of system of ventilation of a case are damaged, faulty and have leak (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).

Admissions of ignition during the operation of the engine on transfer

1. The fuel filter is blocked (The head Routine maintenance).
2. The fuel pump or the insufficient developed pressure is faulty (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
3. Fuel tubes or ventilation of a gasoline tank are blocked (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
4. Leak of vacuum in the case of a throttle of the inlet pipeline or connecting hoses (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
5. Spark plugs are worn-out or faulty or the candle gap is incorrectly exposed (The head Routine maintenance).
6. High-voltage wires of spark plugs or knot of direct ignition (DI cartridge) are faulty if it is established (The head Routine maintenance).
7. The distributor cover is burst or has internal breakdowns (if it is established) (The head Routine maintenance).
8. The ignition coil (The head Sistema of ignition) is faulty.
9. The unequal or lowered compression in cylinders (The head Remont of the engine).
10. The system of injection of fuel is faulty (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).

Interruptions in operation of the engine at acceleration

1. Spark plugs are worn-out or damaged or the candle gap is incorrectly exposed (The head Routine maintenance).
2. Leak of vacuum in the throttle case, the inlet pipeline or in connecting hoses (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
3. The system of injection of fuel is faulty (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).

The engine becomes deaf

1. Leak of vacuum in the throttle case, in the inlet pipeline or in connecting hoses (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
2. The fuel filter is hammered (The head Routine maintenance).
3. The fuel pump is faulty or productivity is insufficient (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
4. Fuel tubes or ventilation of a gasoline tank are blocked (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
5. The system of injection of fuel is faulty (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).

The engine develops insufficient power

1. The fuel filter is blocked (The head Routine maintenance).
2. The fuel pump is faulty or productivity is insufficient (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
3. The unequal or lowered compression in cylinders (The head Remont of the engine).
4. Spark plugs are worn-out or faulty or the candle gap is incorrectly exposed (The head Routine maintenance).
5. Leak of vacuum in the throttle case, in the inlet pipeline or connecting hoses (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
6. The system of injection of fuel is faulty (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
7. The system of a turbo-supercharging is faulty (if it is established) (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
8. Jammed brakes (Chapters Routine maintenance and the Brake system).
9. Coupling (Head Stsepleniye) slips.

Shots from the muffler

1. Leak of vacuum in the throttle case, in the inlet pipeline or in connecting hoses (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
2. The system of injection of fuel is faulty (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).

At the started engine remains included an alarm bulb of pressure of oil

1. Low level of oil or is filled in the wrong grade of oil (The head Routine maintenance).
2. The oil pressure sensor (The head Remont of the engine) is faulty.
3. Inserts and/or the oil pump (The head Remont of the engine) are worn-out.
4. Working temperature of the engine (The head of the Cooling system, heating) is increased.
5. The reducing valve of the lubrication system (The head Remont of the engine) is faulty.
6. The filter of a maslozabornik (The head Remont of the engine) is hammered.

The lowered oil pressure during the operation idling of the engine having a considerable run is not the reason for concern. The much bigger concern has to cause sudden falling of oil at the movement at a speed. Anyway before to pronounce a sentence to the engine, check operation of the sensor, an alarm lamp or the measuring instrument.

The engine continues to work at the switched-off ignition (kalilny ignition)

1. An excessive nagaroobrazovaniye in the engine (The head Remont of the engine).
2. Excessively high working temperature of the engine (Head of the Cooling system, heating).

Noise in the engine

Premature ignition (detonation) or emergence of knock at acceleration or under loading

1. The system of ignition is faulty or distribution of ignition is incorrectly exposed (Heads Routine maintenance and System of ignition).
2. Candles not of the corresponding type are established (The head Routine maintenance).
3. The grade of fuel does not correspond demanded (The head Routine maintenance).
4. Leak of vacuum in the throttle case, the inlet pipeline or in connecting hoses (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
5. An excessive nagaroobrazovaniye in the engine (The head Remont of the engine).
6. The system of injection of fuel is faulty (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).

The whistling or speaking hoarsely sound

1. Leaks through laying of the inlet pipeline or case of a throttle (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
2. Leaks through laying of a final collector (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
3. Leaks in vacuum hoses (Heads Toplivnaya and exhaust systems and the Brake system).
4. Laying of a head of cylinders (The head Remont of the engine) is damaged.

Knock or roar

1. Wear of the valvate mechanism, distributive chain, cam-shaft or hydraulic pushers (Heads Remont of the engine).
2. Auxiliary components (the water pump, the generator and so forth) are faulty (Heads of the Cooling system, heating, Fuel and exhaust systems, etc.).

Deaf knock or blows

1. Bearings of the lower head of a rod (the regular heavy knock which is perhaps decreasing under loading) (The head Remont of the engine) are worn-out.
2. Radical bearings (the roar and knock which is perhaps increasing under loading) (The head Remont of the engine) are worn-out.
3. Knock of pistons (clicking) (it is the most noticeable at the cold engine) ( The head Remont of the engine).
4. Malfunctions of auxiliary components (water pump, generator, etc.) (Heads of the Cooling system, heating, System of start and zaryadaa etc.).

Cooling system

Overheat

1. The auxiliary driving belt - or its wrong tension is torn off (if there is its adjustment) (The head Routine maintenance).
2. Insufficient quantity of a cooler in system (The head Routine maintenance).
3. The thermostat (The head of the Cooling system, heating) is faulty.
4. Canals of a radiator are filled or the front grille (The head of the Cooling system, heating) is partially blocked.
5. The fan switch, the thermostat or the electric fan of the cooling system (The head of the Cooling system, heating) is faulty.
6. Defect of a tight cover of a radiator (Head of the Cooling system, heating).
7. The moment of ignition is incorrectly determined or the system of ignition is faulty (Heads Routine maintenance and System of ignition).
8. The sub-standard sensor of the measuring instrument of temperature (The head of the Cooling system, heating) is installed.
9. Air traffic jams in the cooling system (The head Routine maintenance).

Overcooling

1. The thermostat (The head of the Cooling system, heating) is faulty.
2. The sub-standard sensor of the measuring instrument of temperature (The head of the Cooling system, heating) is installed.

External leakages of a cooler

1. Hoses or hose clips are spoiled or damaged (The head Routine maintenance).
2. Leakages of a radiator or heat exchanger of a heater (Head of the Cooling system, heating).
3. The tight cover of a radiator (The head of the Cooling system, heating) is faulty.
4. Leaks through internal consolidations of the water pump (The head of the Cooling system, heating).
5. Leak through laying of a casing or a sealing ring between the water pump and the block of the engine (The head of the Cooling system, heating).
6. Boiling of a cooler because of an overheat (The head of the Cooling system, heating).
7. Leak through a radiator stopper (The head Remont of the engine).

Internal leakages of a cooler

1. Leaks through laying of a head of cylinders (The head Remont of the engine).
2. Cracks in a head of cylinders or in the block of cylinders (The head Remont of the engine).

Corrosion

1. Insufficiently frequent draining and washing of the cooling system (Head Routine maintenance).
2. Wrong composition of cooling mix or inappropriate type of a cooler (Head Routine maintenance).

Fuel and exhaust systems

Excessive fuel consumption

1. The element of the air filter is littered or blocked (The head Routine maintenance).
2. The system of injection of fuel is faulty (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).
3. The system of ignition is faulty or the ignition moment is incorrectly exposed (Heads Routine maintenance and System of ignition).
4. Brakes brake (The head the Brake system).
5. Insufficient pressure in tires (The head Routine maintenance).

Leak of fuel and/or emergence of a smell of gasoline

The fuel tank, tubes or connections is damaged (Heads Routine maintenance both Fuel and exhaust systems).

Excessive noise and smoke from the exhaust system

1. Leaks through connections of the exhaust system or a final collector (The head Routine maintenance both Fuel and exhaust systems).
2. Are untight, skorrodirovana or are damaged mufflers or exhaust pipes (Heads Routine maintenance both Fuel and exhaust systems).
3. Elements of a suspension bracket of the exhaust system therefore there is a contact of the exhaust system with the case or a suspension bracket are broken (The head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems).

Coupling

The pedal fails to a floor without resistance or with very small resistance

1. Leaks in hydraulic system of coupling (Head Stsepleniye).
2. Malfunction of hydraulic main or working cylinders (Head Stsepleniye).
3. Defect of the release bearing or clutch release fork levers (Head Stsepleniye).
4. The diaphragm spring of a press clutch plate is broken (Head Stsepleniye).

There is no coupling switching off (transfers do not join)

1. Leaks in hydraulic system of coupling (Head Stsepleniye).
2. The main hydraulic cylinder or the working cylinder of coupling (Head Stsepleniye) is faulty.
3. The clutch plate jammed on vents of a main shaft of the transmission (Head Stsepleniye).
4. The clutch plate stuck to a flywheel or a press disk (Head Stsepleniye).
5. Malfunction of a basket with a press disk (Head Stsepleniye).
6. The release mechanism of coupling (Head Stsepleniye) is worn-out or incorrectly built.

Coupling slipping (turns of the engine raise without increase in speed of the car)

1. Excessive wear of overlays of a clutch plate (Head Stsepleniye).
2. Pollution of overlays of a clutch plate oil or lubricant (Head Stsepleniye).
3. The disk is faulty press or the diaphragm spring (Head Stsepleniye) is weakened.

Breakthroughs at start-off of the car from the place at coupling inclusion

1. Pollution of overlays of a clutch plate oil or lubricant (Head Stsepleniye).
2. Excessive wear of overlays of a clutch plate (Head Stsepleniye).
3. The disk or a diaphragm spring (Head Stsepleniye) is faulty or deformed press.
4. Fastenings of support of the engine or the transmission (The head Remont of the engine) are worn-out or weakened.
5. The nave of a clutch plate or a vent of the leading shaft of the transmission (Head Stsepleniye) is worn-out.

Noise during the squeezing or an otpuskaniye of a pedal of coupling

1. The release bearing of coupling (Head Stsepleniye) is worn-out.
2. Plugs of a pedal of coupling (Head Stsepleniye) are worn out or are not greased.
3. The basket with a press disk is faulty (Head Stsepleniye).
4. The diaphragm spring of a press disk is broken (Head Stsepleniye).
5. The damping clutch plate springs are broken (Head Stsepleniye).

Manual transmission

Noise of transmission in neutral situation, at the working engine

1. Bearings of a main shaft are worn-out (the sound appears at the released pedal of coupling and disappears at squeezed out) (The head the Manual transmission).*
2. The release bearing of coupling (the sound appears at the squeezed-out pedal of coupling and perhaps decreases at released) is worn-out (Head Stsepleniye).

Noise of transmission at its installation on one of transfers

Gear wheel teeth are worn-out, damaged or chopped off (The head the Manual transmission).*

Hard transfers join

1. Coupling (Head Stsepleniye) is faulty.
2. The drive of control of the transmission is worn-out or damaged (The head the Manual transmission).
3. The drive of control of the transmission is incorrectly adjusted (The head the Manual transmission).
4. Synchronizers are worn-out (The head the Manual transmission).*

Soskakivaniya of the transmission from the chosen transfer

1. The drive of control of the transmission is worn-out or damaged (The head the Manual transmission).
2. The drive of control of the transmission is incorrectly adjusted (The head the Manual transmission).
3. Synchronizers are worn-out (The head the Manual transmission).*
4. Selector forks are worn-out (The head the Manual transmission).*

Vibration

1. There is not enough oil (The head Routine maintenance).
2. Bearings are worn-out (The head the Manual transmission).*

Oil leak

1. Leaks through epiploons (The head the Manual transmission).
2. Leaks through connections of a casing (The head the Manual transmission).*

* In spite of the fact that actions for correction of malfunction lie outside qualification of house mechanics, information given above will be useful at a malfunction explanation for the professional mechanic.

Automatic transmission

Because of complexity of a design of automatic transmission high-quality diagnostics, repair and service of this mechanism lies outside competence of the house mechanic. At emergence of problems, except described below, the car has to be driven away in a workshop of car service or to the specialist in automatic transmissions.

Leak of transmission liquid

1. Transmission liquid usually has dark red color, it is not necessary to confuse leak of transmission liquid to leak of motive oil which can be easily brought from the engine on a transmission case by an air stream.
2. For definition of a source of leak at first remove all stuck dirt and fat from a casing of transmission and surrounding areas, use for this purpose the degreasing structure or a steam cleaner. Pass on the car with a small speed so that the air stream could not blow off the following oil from the engine on a transmission casing. Lift and prop up the car then examine a transmission casing regarding detection of a source of leak. The most often found sources of leak of gearbox oil are:

  a) Transmission case pallet.
   b) Tube of the shchupovy measuring instrument (Head Routine maintenance).
   c) Nipple connections of tubes of cooling liquid with transmission (Head Automatic transmission).

Transmission liquid has brown color or a smell of burning

Too low level of transmission liquid or liquid demands replacement (The head Routine maintenance).

The main problems at the choice of transfers of automatic transmission

1. Malfunctions or the wrong setup of the mechanism of the selector of transfers are the most often found reasons of problems of the choice of transfer. The main problems connected with the mechanism of the selector of transfers are:

   a) The engine is started on the transfers other than "Parking" or "Neutral".
   b) The indicator of the lever of gear shifting specifies not that transfer which is established at present.
   c) The car starts at the lever of the choice of transfers installed in situation "Parking" or "Neutral".
   d) Bad quality of gear shifting or uncertain choice of transfer.

2. With all problems address the dealer of SAAB or the specialist in automatic transmissions.

Transmission does not lower transfer at completely squeezed out pedal of an accelerator (Kick-down)

1. Low level of transmission liquid (Head Routine maintenance).
2. Wrong adjustment of a rope of the selector (Head Automatic transmission).

The engine is not started on one of transfers or started on transfers other than "Parking" or "Neutral"

1. The wrong adjustment of a delay mechanism of start of transmission - if is established (The head Automatic transmission).
2. Wrong adjustment of a rope of the selector (Head Automatic transmission).

Transmission slips, has internal noise, transfers hardly switch, or there is no movement at inclusion of a lobby or the reverse gear

There is a set of the possible reasons for the above-stated problems, however in competence of the house mechanic only one possible reason - the insufficient level of liquid lies. Before driving away the car in a workshop of car service or to the specialist in automatic transmissions, check the level of liquid and its state as Routine maintenance is described in the Head.

If necessary make a dolivaniye of transmission liquid or replace liquid and the filter if it is necessary. If malfunction in work of transmission at the same time is not liquidated, it is necessary to address the expert.

Power shafts

Clicking or knock at rotation (at a small speed at completely turned out wheels)

1. Insufficient greasing of hinges of equal angular speeds, is possible damage of the protection cover (The head Power shafts).
2. Wear of the external hinge of equal angular speeds (Head Power shafts).

Vibration at acceleration or dumping of gas

1. Wear of the internal hinge of equal angular speeds (Head Power shafts).
2. Will bend a power shaft (The head Power shafts).

Brake system

Before coming to conclusion about malfunction of the brake system, make sure that tires are in good shape, are properly beefy that adjustment of disorder and convergence of forward wheels is correctly made and the car is evenly loaded. Except for check of a condition of all tubes, hoses and their connections, diagnostics and correction of any malfunctions concerning system of anti-blocking of brakes (ABS) have to be made by the dealer of Saab or the specialist of car service.

When braking the car takes away aside

1. Brake shoes of a forward or back wheel on the one hand of the car are worn-out, damaged or polluted (Heads Routine maintenance and the Brake system).
2. In whole or in part jammed pistons of a forward or back support (The head the Brake system).
3. Various blocks are established or replacement was made on the one hand (The head the Brake system).
4. Fixing bolts of a brake support weakened (The head the Brake system).
5. Components of steering or a suspension bracket are worn-out or damaged (Heads Routine maintenance and the Suspension bracket and steering).

Noise when braking (a gnash or squeal)

1. Material of frictional overlays of brake shoes is worn-out to a metal substrate (The head Routine maintenance and the Brake system).
2. Excessive corrosion of a brake disk - usually appears after long idle time of the car (The head Routine maintenance and the Brake system).

Excessive course of a brake pedal

1. Malfunction of the main brake cylinder (Head Brake system).
2. Hit of air in hydraulic system (The head the Brake system).
3. Malfunction of the block of the vacuum amplifier of brakes (Head Brake system).

Feeling of softness when squeezing a brake pedal

1. Hit of air in hydraulic system (The head the Brake system).
2. Excess of a flexible brake hose (Head Routine maintenance and Brake system).
3. Fixture of the main brake cylinder weakened (The head the Brake system).
4. The main brake cylinder is faulty (The head the Brake system).

Braking of the car requires excessive effort when pressing a brake pedal

1. The vacuum block of the amplifier of brakes is faulty (The head the Brake system).
2. The hose of the vacuum amplifier of brakes is unreliably connected, disconnected or damaged (Heads Routine maintenance and the Brake system).
3. Malfunction of primary or secondary hydraulic contour (Head Brake system).
4. Jamming of the piston (pistons) of a brake support (Head Brake system).
5. Wrong installation of brake shoes (Head Brake system).
6. Brake shoes of improper type are established (The head the Brake system).
7. Brake shoes are polluted (The head the Brake system).

Feeling of pushes of a brake pedal or in a steering wheel when braking

1. Excessive beating or bend of a brake disk (disks) (Head Brake system).
2. Wear of overlays of a brake shoe (Head Routine maintenance and Brake system).
3. Bolts of fastening of support of brake supports weakened (The head the Brake system).
4. Wear of support or components of steering system or suspension bracket (Head Routine maintenance and Suspension bracket and steering).

Jamming of brakes

1. Jamming of the piston (pistons) of brake supports (Head Brake system).
2. The mechanism of the emergency brake is incorrectly adjusted (The head the Brake system).
3. The main brake cylinder is faulty (The head the Brake system).

Blocking of back wheels at normal braking

1. Jamming of the piston (pistons) of brake supports (Head Brake system).
2. Malfunction of the regulator of brake pressure (Head Brake system).

Suspension bracket and steering

Before coming to a conclusion that the suspension bracket or steering is faulty make sure that the arisen problems are not connected with the wrong pressure in tires, installation of wheels of various type or jamming of brakes.

The car takes away in one party

1. The tire is damaged (The head Routine maintenance).
2. Excessive wear of components of steering or suspension bracket (Head Routine maintenance and Suspension bracket and steering).
3. Adjustment of disorder and convergence of forward wheels is incorrectly made (The head Podvesk and steering).
4. Emergency damage of components of steering system or suspension bracket (Head Routine maintenance and Suspension bracket and steering).

Side beating and vibration of wheels

1. Disbalance of forward wheels (vibration is generally felt on a steering wheel) (The head Podvesk and steering).
2. Disbalance of back wheels (vibration is generally felt via the car case) (The head Podvesk and steering).
3. Damage or bend of rims (Head Podvesk and steering).
4. The tire is damaged or faulty (The head Routine maintenance).
5. Components of connections or the plug in steering system or a suspension bracket are worn-out (Heads Routine maintenance and the Suspension bracket and steering).
6. There was a weakening of bolts of fastening of a wheel (The head Podvesk and steering).

Excessive swing of rather cross axis when braking and/or onboard rolling at turns

1. Shock-absorbers are damaged (Heads Routine maintenance and the Suspension bracket and steering).
2. Springs and/or components of a suspension bracket are broken or worn-out (Heads Routine maintenance and the Suspension bracket and steering).
3. The stabilizer of cross stability or a rack is worn-out or damaged (The head Podvesk and steering).

Roving or the general instability at the movement

1. Wrong adjustment of disorder and convergence of forward wheels (Head Podvesk and steering).
2. Hinges of the plug or components of steering system or a suspension bracket are worn-out (Heads Routine maintenance and the Suspension bracket and steering).
3. Wheels are debalanced (The head Podvesk and steering).
4. Tires are faulty or damaged (The head Routine maintenance).
5. Bolts of fastening of wheels weakened (The head Podvesk and steering).
6. Shock-absorbers are faulty (Heads Routine maintenance and the Suspension bracket and steering).

Excessively hard course of a steering wheel

1. Insufficient lubricant of the steering drive (Head Podvesk and steering).
2. There was a zakusyvaniye of hinges of tips of steering drafts or hinges of steering drafts (The head Routine maintenance and the Suspension bracket and steering).
3. The auxiliary driving belt is torn off or incorrectly tense (The head Routine maintenance).
4. Wrong adjustment of disorder and convergence of forward wheels (Head Podvesk and steering).
5. Bend or damage of a steering rack or column (Head Podvesk and steering).

Excessive side play of a steering wheel

1. Universal connections of a steering column are worn-out (The head Podvesk and steering).
2. Hinges of tips of steering drafts are worn-out (Heads Routine maintenance and the Suspension bracket and steering).
3. Rack steering transfer is worn-out (The head Podvesk and steering).
4. Hinges of the plug or components of steering system or a suspension bracket are worn-out (Heads Routine maintenance and the Suspension bracket and steering).

Lack of hydrostrengthening of a wheel

1. The auxiliary driving belt is torn off or incorrectly tense (The head Routine maintenance).
2. The wrong level of liquid in the power steering (The head Routine maintenance).
3. Obstruction in hoses of system of hydrostrengthening of a wheel (The head Routine maintenance).
4. The pump of system of hydrostrengthening of a wheel is faulty (The head Podvesk and steering).
5. Rack steering transfer is faulty (The head Podvesk and steering).

Excessive wear of tires

The tire is worn-out on the inner or outer edge

1. Insufficient pressure in tires (wear from both edges) (The head Routine maintenance).
2. The wrong corners of disorder or convergence (wear only on one edge) (The head Podvesk and steering).
3. Wear of hinges, plugs or components of steering system or suspension bracket (Head Routine maintenance and Suspension bracket and steering).
4. The movement with frequent abrupt turns.
5. Emergency damages.

Obtrepyvaniye of a protector

Wrong convergence of wheels (Head Podvesk and steering).

Wear of the tire on the center of a protector

Excessive pressure in tires (The head Routine maintenance).

Wear of tires on the inner or outer edge of a protector (the same, as the first)

1. Insufficient pressure in tires (The head Routine maintenance).
2. Wear of shock-absorbers (Head Routine maintenance and Suspension bracket and steering).

Uneven wear of tires

1. Disbalance of wheels, tires (Head Routine maintenance).
2. Excessive beating of a disk or tires (Head Routine maintenance).
3. Shock-absorbers are worn-out (Heads Routine maintenance and the Suspension bracket and steering).
4. The tire is faulty (The head Routine maintenance).

System of electric equipment

The problems connected with malfunction of system of start are described in the section "Engine".

The battery is discharged for several days

1. Internal defect of the battery (Head Sistemy of start and charge).
2. Low level of electrolyte in the battery (where is available) (The head Routine maintenance).
3. Clips of plugs of the battery (The head weakened or skorrodirovat Routine maintenance).
4. The auxiliary driving belt is worn-out or incorrectly tense (where it is available) (The head Routine maintenance).
5. Generator power (The head Sistemy of start and a charge) is insufficient.
6. The generator or the regulator of tension (The head Sistemy of start and a charge) is faulty.
7. Battery electrolyte level is small (The head Sistema of start and a charge and Sistema of electric equipment).

After start of the engine remains the battery burning an alarm bulb of an ignition / charge

1. The auxiliary driving belt is torn off, worn-out or incorrectly tense (The head Routine maintenance).
2. Jammed, generator brushes (The head Sistemy of start and a charge) are polluted or worn-out.
3. Springs of brushes of the generator (The head Sistemy of start and a charge) weakened or are broken.
4. Internal damages of the generator or regulator of tension (Head Sistemy of start and charge).
5. Contacts of fastening of wires in a recharge contour (The head Sistemy of start and a charge) are broken off, disconnected or weakened.

At all the alarm bulb of an ignition / charge does not light up

1. The alarm lamp (The head Sistema of electric equipment) fused.
2. Fastenings of wires in a contour of food of an alarm lamp (The head Sistema of electric equipment) are torn off, disunited or weakened.
3. The generator (The head Sistemy of start and a charge) is faulty.

Headlights do not join

1. Bulbs (The head Sistema of electric equipment) fused.
2. Corrosion of contacts of lamps and cartridges (Head Sistema of electric equipment).
3. The safety lock (The head Sistema of electric equipment) fused.
4. The relay (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is faulty.
5. Fastenings of wires (The head Sistema of electric equipment) are torn off, disconnected or weakened.
6. The switch (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is faulty.

Inexact or unstable indications of devices

Indications of devices increase from a uvelicheniyemskorost

Tension regulator (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is faulty.

Measuring instruments of level of fuel or temperature do not function

1. The measuring instrument sensor block is faulty (Heads of the Cooling system, heating both Fuel and exhaust systems).
2. Break in an electric chain (The head Sistema of electric equipment).
3. The measuring instrument (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is faulty.

Measuring instruments of level of fuel and temperature constantly show the maximum value

1. The index sensor block is faulty (Heads of the Cooling system, heating both Fuel and exhaust systems).
2. Break of an electric chain (Head Sistema of electric equipment).
3. The sensor (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is faulty.

Does not work or incorrectly the horn works

The horn is included constantly

Contacts of a horn are constantly connected or the button of inclusion of a horn (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is jammed.

The horn does not join

1. The safety lock (The head Sistema of electric equipment) fused.
2. Fastenings of cables or cable connections (The head Sistema of electric equipment) are torn off, disconnected or weakened.
3. The horn (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is faulty.

The horn has a faltering or weak signal

1. Cable connections (The head Sistema of electric equipment) weakened.
2. Fastenings of a horn (The head Sistema of electric equipment) weakened.
3. The horn (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is faulty.

Do not work or badly screen wipers of a windshield and glass of a back door cope

Brushes do not move or move too slowly

1. Brushes stuck to glass, levers of brushes are jammed or bent (Heads Routine maintenance and System of electric equipment).
2. The safety lock (The head Sistema of electric equipment) fused.
3. Weakened, cables or cable connections (The head Sistema of electric equipment) are damaged or disconnected.
4. The relay (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is faulty.
5. The screen wiper motor (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is faulty.

Too big or too low speed of brushes on glass

1. Levers of brushes on the axes are incorrectly installed (The head Routine maintenance).
2. Excessive wear of drafts of a screen wiper (Head Sistema of electric equipment).
3. Support of the motor of a screen wiper or draft (The head Sistema of electric equipment) weakened.

Brushes badly wipe the surface of glass

1. The brush elastic band is worn out or fell off (The head Routine maintenance).
2. The clamping spring of the lever of a screen wiper is broken or jammed a lever axis (The head Sistema of electric equipment).
3. In system of windscreen washers insufficiently effective liquid is filled in (The head Routine maintenance).

Do not work or badly washers of a windshield or glass of a back door cope

One or more is faulty and does not cope snuffled windscreen washer

1. The windscreen washer nozzle is corked (The head Routine maintenance).
2. The liquid supply hose (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is disconnected, bent or hammered.
3. Insufficient amount of liquid in the windscreen washer tank (The head Routine maintenance).

The windscreen washer pump does not work

1. Contacts of wires (The head Sistema of electric equipment) are torn off or disconnected.
2. The safety lock (The head Sistema of electric equipment) fused.
3. The windscreen washer switch (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is faulty.
4. The windscreen washer pump (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is faulty.

Liquid begins to arrive not at once from snuffled windscreen washer after turning on of the water pump of windscreen washer

The antidrainage valve in a liquid supply hose (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is faulty.

Do not work or badly power windows are operated

Glass in a window moves only in one direction

The switch (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is faulty.

Glass moves too slowly

1. The regulator jammed or is damaged or lubricant is required (The head Body works).
2. Internal components of a door or a covering cling to the regulator (The head Body works).
3. The motor is faulty (The head Body works).

Glass does not move at all

1. The safety lock (The head Sistema of electric equipment) fused.
2. The relay (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is faulty.
3. Wires or contacts of wires (The head Sistema of electric equipment) are torn off, disconnected.
4. The motor is faulty (The head Body works).

Does not join or badly the system of the uniform lock copes

System crash

1. The safety lock (The head Sistema of electric equipment) fused.
2. The relay (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is faulty.
3. Wires or contacts of wires (The head Sistema of electric equipment) are torn off, disconnected.

Locks are locked, but do not open or on the contrary, open, but are not locked

1. The switch (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is faulty.
2. The operating rods or levers of a latch are broken off or disunited (The head Body works).
3. The relay (The head Sistema of electric equipment) is faulty.

One electromagnet / motor does not work

1. Wires or wire contacts (The head Sistema of electric equipment) are torn off or disconnected.
2. The electromagnet/motor is faulty (The head Body works).
3. The operating rods or levers of a latch are broken off, bent or disunited (The head Body works).
4. Malfunction in the door lock (The head Body works).