6.17. A turbocompressor - the description and precautionary measures

On some models the turbocompressor increasing overall performance of the engine by rise in pressure in the inlet pipeline is established is higher than atmospheric. Whereas on usual models air is just sucked in in cylinders from the atmosphere, on the models equipped with system of a turbo-supercharging, air is forced in the inlet pipeline.

The turbocompressor is put in action under the influence of energy of exhaust gases. A stream of exhaust gases, passing through the casing having the special form (a turbine casing) rotates a krylchatka of the turbine. Krylchatka is established on a shaft on which end other krylchatka called by a krylchatka of the compressor is established. Krylchatka of the compressor rotates in an own casing and compresses the air given to the inlet pipeline.

On the way from a turbocompressor to the inlet pipeline compressed air is cooled, passing through the heat exchanger (intercooler) installed before a radiator. A problem of the intercooler is the otdavaniye from the soaked-up air of heat generated in it at compression. As cold air is more dense, the fence of this heat increases further overall performance of the engine.

Increase in pressure in the inlet pipeline is limited to dumping of pressure in a driving part of the supercharger due to withdrawal of a part of exhaust gases from a krylchatka of the turbine via the control valve, sensitive to change of pressure. In case of excessive increase in pressure in the inlet pipeline (at failure of the system of dumping) the disconnecting security system will switch off the fuel pump and will stop the engine.

On models till 1987 cooling of a turbocompressor was made by the issue only at the expense of motive oil. Since 1987, for the purpose of fall of temperature of the case of bearings also water cooling is applied.

On all models equipped with system of a turbo-supercharging also the system of automatic control of the engine (APC) is installed. A main objective of this system is adjustment of a corner of an advancing of ignition and work of a turbocompressor so that the engine worked with maximum efficiency and economy, irrespective of quality and octane number of the applied fuel. Use of such system is necessary as use of various gasolines often can lead to change of characteristics of the engine.

On models till 1989 of the issue the APC system has the own electronic actuation device (ECU) established at the left under the forward panel ("Torpedo"). At the same time the APC system operates only a turbocompressor and does not operate installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition.

On models from 1989 to 1993 the APC system is included by the issue in a contour of the electronic actuation device of system of the direct ignition established under a front left seat. On models since 1994 the system is included by the issue in a contour of the electronic actuation device of the control system of the Trionic engine installed at the left under the panel of a false partition in a motive compartment. In both last cases in addition to control of work of a turbocompressor, if necessary, reduction of a corner of an advancing of ignition is at the right time made. The APC system compensates emergence in the detonation engine at detonation sensor means. Also the system switched on pressure sensor (which corrects pressure in the inlet pipeline) and the electromagnetic valve (which operates dumping of gas in a turbocompressor).

Greasing of a shaft of a turbocompressor is carried out by the oil given under pressure on an oil tube from the main oil gallery. The shaft "floats" in an oil pillow. The drainage tube returns oil in the case pallet.

Precautionary measures

Work of a turbocompressor is carried out at extremely high speeds and temperatures. Therefore, in order to avoid a premature exit of a turbosistema out of operation or getting injured during the work with turbosistemy it is necessary to observe certain precautionary measures.

Do not include a turbocompressor if any of its parts is open or if are disconnected any of its hoses. Hit in the rotating blades of a krylchatka of foreign objects can lead to strong damages and (at their emission) to injuries.

Do not start the movement immediately after start of the engine, in particular, if it is not heated-up. Wait several seconds before oil circulation installation.

Before switching off ignition, let's the engine dump turns to single - do not increase speed and do not switch off immediately the engine as at the same time the turbocompressor will rotate without greasing.

After the movement at high speeds before switching off ignition, dump engine turns to single and let's the engine work on these turns within several minutes.

Observe the recommended intervals of change of motive oil and an oil filter, apply oil only of the required grade and in the quantities determined by Specifications. The neglect the procedure of change of motive oil and use of oil of an unauthorized grade can lead to formation of coal deposits on a turbocompressor shaft that will result in its malfunction.