1.6. Tools and equipment of a workplace

Introduction

Selection of the good tool is the fundamental requirement to the car owner intending to start independently repair and service of the car. For owners of cars at the disposal of which there is no suitable tool its acquisition is rather expensive action, however allows to save considerable means when carrying out a set of works independently. At acquisition of the standard tool of high quality it is capable to serve to the owner considerable time and is good capital investments.

To help the average owner of the car, to choose what tool will be required to it for holding various procedures described in this manual, is given 3 tool kits under the following headings below: A set of the tool for routine maintenance and the minimum repair, a set of the tool for the general repair and capital repairs, and the special tool. The owners of cars who do not have practical experience of mechanical works have to begin with the works limited to the first tool kit for routine maintenance and the minimum car repairs, improving the skills, performing the elementary works.

In process of acquisition of experience it is possible to pass to performance of more complex challenges, having added the available tool kit as required of their acquisition. After a while, the tool which is held by you, begins to correspond to the second list of the tool on the general repair and on capital repairs of the car. When your qualification allows to save considerable means when holding difficult procedures independently, it is possible to think of acquisition of tools from special set.

Tool kit on routine maintenance and the minimum car repairs

The list of tools given below represents the minimum set necessary for routine maintenance and the minimum repair of your car. Acquisition of the combined wrenches (with a usual head on one end and from cap on another) is recommended in spite of the fact that this tool is more expensive, than a simple set of keys, they have advantage of both types.

   -  The combined keys:
      •  Metric - 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 19 mm
      •  With a flat sting: 100 mm and 6 mm long in the diameter
      •  With a cross sting: 100 mm and 6 mm long in the diameter
      •  An adjustable spanner - 35 mm (approximately)
      •  A candle key (with a rubber insert)
      •  The tool for adjustment of a candle gap
      •  Set of probes
      •  The Nippelny key for pumping of brakes
  -  Screw-drivers:
      •  With a flat sting: 100 mm and 6 mm long in the diameter
      •  With a cross sting: 100 mm and 6 mm long in the diameter
  -  The combined flat-nose pliers
  -  Hacksaw (small)
  - The pump for a rating of tires
  -  The manometer for measurement of pressure in tires
  - A canister under oil
  -  The tool for removal of an oil filter
  -  Thin emery paper
  -  Wire brush (small)
  -  Funnel (average size)

Tool kit for the general and capital repairs of the car

This tool is required for carrying out any repair operations with the engine of the car and offered in addition to the list of tools on routine maintenance and the minimum repair. This list includes a full set of replaceable heads. Despite the high cost, a set of face replaceable heads brings invaluable benefit thanks to the universality and conveniences of the address - in particular in combination with the drives entering a set of various type.

It is recommended to use the drive the section of half of inch as they can be used actually with any type of dynamometer keys. In case you have no opportunity to acquire a set of replaceable face heads in view of its high cost, cheaper option is a set of tubular keys which can represent an alternative to a set of replaceable face heads.

Tools from the list given below in certain cases are required for application with a combination to special tools:

  - A set of replaceable heads (or tubular keys) the sizes of the combined keys corresponding to the sizes from the previous list (including "Torx" - heads)
  - The ratchet drive (for use with face heads)
  - The extender of long 250 mm (for use with face heads)
  - Universal connection (for use with a set of face heads)
  - A dynamometer key (for use with a set of face heads)
  - Self-locking vice
  - The hammer with round brisk
  - Soft kiyanka (plastic, aluminum or rubber)
  - Screw-drivers:
      •  With a flat sting - long and strong, short, narrow (for electronics)
      •  With a cross sting - long and strong and short
  -  Flat-nose pliers:
      •  With long sponges
      •  Bokoreza (for electronics)
      •  For lock rings (internal and external)
  - Chisels - 25 mm
  - Skrayber (chertilka)
  - Scraper
  - Center punch
  - Small beards with a thin sting
  - Hacksaw
  - A clip for brake hoses
  - Set for pumping of brakes and production of liquid of coupling
  - Set of spiral drills
  - Steel line / measuring instrument of planeness
  - A set of keys for an internal hexagon (including face and the Torx type)
  - Set of files
  - Wire brush
  - Axial subtime
  - Jack (powerful cart or hydraulic type)
  - Carrying with a long wire

Special tool

Tools which are adequately expensive are presented in this list, are not used regularly or are required the instruction of the manufacturer. If frequent performance of difficult mechanical operations does not fall within the scope of your activity, acquisition of such tool will be not economic. It is reasonable to buy such tool by sharing the cost with friends or to hire it in workshops of car service.

Only those tools and devices which can be found in retail trade or released for specialists of dealer network are entered in the list. Sometimes in the text of the book you will find references to such special tools. Usually authors try to offer in parallel the alternative method allowing to avoid use of such inaccessible tools.

In case use of such tool cannot be avoided, and the tool cannot be acquired or hired, it is necessary to entrust work performance to experts.

  - The tool for grinding in of valves
  - Separator of spherical support
  - The tool for compression of screw springs (where it is required)
  - Impact driver
  - Dial measuring instrument
  - Stroboscope
  - Measuring instrument speed / tachometer
  - A tester for electric measurements
  - Compression measuring instrument
  - Lifting rigging
  - Cart jack

A set of replaceable face heads with the reversive ratchet drive

Set of shlitsevy nozzles

Set of shlitsevy keys

The tool for compression of valvate springs

The tool for a staving of piston rings

The tool for removal / installation of piston rings

Hon of sleeves of cylinders

Three-gripping stripper for extraction of plugs and bearings

Micrometer

Caliper

The dial test indicator with the magnetic basis

The manual vacuum pump with the vacuum gage

Set for centering of a clutch plate

The tool for removal of hats of springs of brake shoes

Set for removal / installation of plugs and bearings

Set for a reversing of hairpins

Set lerok and taps

Care of tools and their storage

After the tool is acquired, it is necessary to take care of keeping it clean and in constant availability for service. After use of the tool before putting it to the place of storage, always carefully by means of pure dry rags delete dirt, lubricant and the remains of metal particles from the surface of the tool. Never leave the tool scattered on the place of works. For storage of such tool as screw-drivers, flat-nose pliers, hammers the tool comb on a garage wall approaches. Sets of wrenches and face replaceable heads have to be stored in metal boxes. It is necessary to store the measuring tool in dry pure places where it cannot be damaged or subjected to corrosion.

Always it is necessary to pay attention to a condition of the tool in work. On the surface quickly of the hammer in the course of work there are tags and rasklepa, screw-drivers can lose sharpening of the stings. Be not afraid to pay a little attention and time in order that by means of an emery paper or a file to remove traces from the surface of the hammer and to put the cutting edges of the tool in order.

Workplace equipment

Speaking about the tool, it is necessary to remember the equipment of the workplace. If carrying out more serious work, than simple maintenance is necessary, then the suitable working platform for this purpose is required.

It is necessary to recognize that many owners of cars, are forced to make removal of the engine and to that similar works not in the conditions of a garage or a workshop. However anyway any repair procedures have to be made under an awning or a roof.

Whenever possible, any procedures for dismantling of parts have to be made on a pure flat workbench or a table of convenient height.

The workbench has to be surely equipped with a vice. A vice with disclosure of sponges to 100 mm and with soft sponges is sufficient. As it was already mentioned above, on the working platform there has to be a pure dry place for storage of the tool, lubricant and cleaning liquids, hard putties, paints and to that similar.

It is necessary to notice that absolutely necessary tool is the electric drill, therefore the working platform has to be equipped with the power supply for an electric drill. The drill has to have a cartridge for drills, at least, of 8 mm, existence of an electric drill and a set of drills considerably will help carrying out many operations.

At last, the stock of old newspapers and pure, not ворсящейся the rags intended for cleaning of the working platform and the tool of pollution always has to be in a workplace.

Ratio of the sizes of bolts and disclosure of sponges of wrenches *

Disclosure of sponges in inches (mm)

Key size

Bolt size

0.197 (5.00)
5 mm
M 2.5
0.216 (5.50)
5.5 mm
M 3
0.218 (5.53)
7/32 in AF
0.236 (6.00)
6 mm
M 3.5
0.250 (6.35)
1/4 in AF
0.275 (7.00)
7 mm
M 4
0.281 (7.14)
9/32 in AF
0.312 (7.92)
5/16 in AF
0.315 (8.00)
8 mm
M 5
0.343 (8.71)
11/32 in AF
0.375 (9.52)
3/8 in AF
0.394 (10.00)
10 mm
M 6
0.406 (10.32)
13/32 in AF
0.433 (11.00)
11 mm
M 7
0.437 (11.09)
7/16 in AF
1/4 in SAE
0.468 (11.88)
15/32 in AF
0.500 (12.70)
1/2 in AF
5/16v SAE
0.512 (13.00)
13 mm
M 8
0.562 (14.27)
9/16 in AF
3/8 in SAE
0.593 (15.06)
19/32 in AF
0.625 (15.87)
5/8 in AF
7/16 in SAE
0.669 (17.00)
17 mm
M 10
0.687 (17.44)
11/16 in AF
0.709 (19.00)
19 mm
M 12
0.750 (19.05)
3/4 in AF
1/2 in SAE
0.781 (19.83)
25/32 in AF
0.812 (20.62)
13/16 in AF
0.866 (22.00)
22 mm
M 14
0.875 (22.25)
7/8 in AF
9/16 in SAE
0.937 (23.79)
15/16 in AF
5/8 in SAE
0.945 (24.00)
24 mm
M 16
0.968 (24.58)
31/32 in AF
1.000 (25.40)
1 in AF
11/16 in SAE
1.062 (26.97)
11/16 in AF
3/4 in SAE
1.063 (27.00)
27 mm
M 18
1.125 (28.57)
11/8 in AF
1.182 (30.00)
30 mm
M 20
1.187 (30.14)
13/16 in AF
1.250 (31.75)
11/4 in AF
7/8 in SAE
1.260 (32.00)
32 mm
M 22
1.312 (33.32)
15/16 in AF
1.375 (34.92)
13/8 in AF
1.418 (36.00)
36 mm
M 24
1.437 (36.49)
17/16 in AF
1 in SAE
1.500 (38.10)
11/2 in AF
1.615 (41.00)
41 mm
M27
* AF - the American standard
SAE - society of engineers of auto makers