1.5. Main repair procedures

When carrying out service of the current or capital repairs of the car it is necessary to adhere to the procedures and instructions described below. It will help you to perform works competently at the professional level.

The interfaced surfaces and laying

At division of the interfaced planes of components never try to separate them by means of introduction between them of the screw-driver or other lever. It can lead to serious damages of surfaces and finally to emergence of leak of oil, a cooler, etc. It is necessary to divide details, tapping them the soft hammer for the purpose of sealant violation. However this method does not result in positive result when details for their fixing are put on the directing probes.

Where between the interfaced planes of two components laying installation is required, do not forget that at assembly new laying has to be established, you hold it at the same time dry if the return is not required according to the description of the procedure of repair. Before assembly make sure that the interfaced surfaces are pure and dry, without the remains of old laying. When cleaning of the interfaced surfaces use such tool which is not capable to scratch or damage a surface, delete agnails and are erose by means of a thin grinding stone or a thin file.

Smooth out carving openings a cleaner for pipes and do not allow hit in them a connecting compound if the return is not required by the instruction.

Make sure that all openings, channels and tubes are cleaned, blow them compressed air.


Epiploons can be removed by means of the screw-driver with a wide flat sting or other suitable tool. Alternatively in an epiploon several self-tapping screws for which the epiploon can be taken by means of flat-nose pliers can be screwed in.

Every time when the epiploon is removed from the place as separately, and as an assembly detail it has to be replaced.

Very thin sponges of an epiploon can be easily damaged, besides sponges will not provide due consolidation in case contact surfaces have scratches, agnails or flutes. In case the condensed surface of details cannot be restored and if the manufacturer did not provide a possibility of small movement of an epiploon on the condensed surface, the detail has to be replaced.

Protect epiploon sponges from contact with surfaces which can damage them in installation time of an epiploon. Where it is possible, use an insulating tape or the plastic plug. Before installation of an epiploon oil sponges engine or on an epiploon with two sponges fill an interval between sponges with lubricant.

If in the instruction the return is not stipulated, the epiploon has to be established by sealing sponges towards lubricant which effluence it prevents.

For installation of an epiploon into place use a tubular drift or the wooden block of the suitable size in case the casing into which the epiploon is inserted has a coat hanger, push an epiploon under a coat hanger. In case a coat hanger on a casing is not available, the epiploon has to be established aflush with a casing surface (in case other it is not stipulated in the instruction).

Threaded connections and fixture

Often action of corrosion is resulted by a prikipaniye of nuts, bolts and screws that does not give the chance to give them by means of use of the ordinary tool. Usually this problem can be overcome by means of drawing on the stuck fixture of the getting oil or anticorrosive liquid. Besides the impact driver in combination with a nozzle or a replaceable head of the corresponding size can be used. If any of these methods does not help, then it is possible to try to heat carefully the site of a detail with the stuck threaded connection, or as a last resort to use a hacksaw or the equipment for cutting of nuts.

For twisting of hairpins usually for the end of a hairpin two nuts are wound and zakontrivatsya among themselves then the screw is unscrewed by means of a wrench for the lower nut. The bolts and hairpins which are cut off aflush with a surface can be taken by means of the patented reverse of hairpins. Before screwing in a bolt or a hairpin in a deaf carving opening, surely make sure that in an opening oil, lubricant, water or other liquid did not get. Not respect for this precaution can be the reason emergence in a crack casing under the influence of the hydraulic pressure arising when twisting a bolt or hairpin.

When twisting a koronchaty nut before coincidence of openings under the forelock tighten a nut with the required effort (where it is necessary), and then turn a nut further before coincidence of shplintovy openings. Do not turn a nut before coincidence of openings back at all if it is specially not stipulated in the description of the repair procedure. When checking or retightening a nut or bolt with the required effort give a nut or a bolt on a quarter of a turn and then his (her) perezatyanit with the required effort. However it is not necessary to do it where the nut drags on on a certain angle of rotation.

For some types of fixture such as bolts of a head of cylinders or a nut of a head of cylinders the last stage of their tightening demands not tightening by a dynamometer key with a certain effort, and turn of a nut (bolt) on a certain corner.

Lock-nuts, blocking ears and washers

Any fixture which when tightening rotates in relation to a casing or a component always has among themselves and a casing surface a washer. The cutting and spring washers when fastening components experiencing critical strain such as covers of bearings of the lower head of a rod have to be replaced without fail at assembly. Also surely are subject to replacement at assembly of a washer with blocking ears which are bent for prevention of rotation of a nut or a bolt.

Самоконтрящиеся nuts of the elements which are not experiencing critical strain can be reused, the nut should be wound on a bolt or a hairpin before emergence of easy resistance. However it must be kept in mind that the kontryashchy effect самоконтрящихся nuts falls at their repeated use. In this case needless to say the nut has to be replaced.

Also forelocks are subject to obligatory replacement. When replacing it is necessary to use the forelock of the corresponding size.

If the carving which is subject to reuse of a bolt or nut has on itself traces of a blocking compound, the carving has to be carefully cleared by means of a wire brush and solvent and at installation the fresh compound has to be used.

Special tool

The separate repair procedures described in this manual assume use of the special tool, for example: a press, two or three-gripping strippers, the tool for removal of springs and so forth. Where it is possible in this manual alternative options of holding repair procedures without use of the special tool are described.

In certain cases, when alternative options are not possible, it is necessary to resort only to use of the special tool, both for a safety reason, and for reasons of maximum efficiency of holding procedures. If only you are not the highly qualified specialist and do not imagine in details described procedure, do not try to do without use of the special tool where it is necessary. Such attempts can lead not only to traumatizing, but also and to extremely expensive damages of components of the car.

System of injection of fuel

The most important requirement when holding repair procedures with system of injection of fuel is respect for purity. Before a rassoyedineniye of components of system carefully clear components and areas around them, after a rassoyedineniye of components of system, it is necessary to take measures for prevention of hit in dirt and moisture - rubber fingerstalls (pure), used rubber or plastic gloves fixed on a component by means of rubber bandages or pieces of a cable well will be suitable for this purpose. Avoid use of compressed air for cleaning of elements of the engine near open elements of fuel system - at the same time the risk of hit in system of dirt and moisture appears.

Requirements to preservation of the environment

At utilization of the used motive oil, brake fluid, antifreeze and to that similar it is necessary to pay attention to the requirement of preservation of the environment. So at all draining of excess of liquid in sewer system or on the earth is not allowed. Usually used liquids are subject to delivery on special places of acceptance.

Usually the legislation imposes certain requirements to composition of exhaust gases of cars thereof many adjusting devices of the fuel system installed in the car are sealed up by seals. A problem of such sealing is prevention of unauthorized adjustment of the air-fuel mix able to lead to increase in toxicity of an exhaust. In need of carrying out repair of the components including such sealing at an opportunity sealing has to be restored.