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1.10. Preparation of the car for checkup


The present section is conceived as the instruction for preparation of your car for passing of technical inspection. All are listed below the main, the car elements which are subject to check, it is described how to make their independent check and possible ways definitions of causes of defect are given. It is obvious that it is impossible to make check of elements of the car, at the same level on what they are carried out by professionals at checkup who have vast experience of such work and have the necessary equipment at the order. However, following the recommendations given below you will be able to define surely technical condition of your car, to reveal and eliminate the possible malfunctions which are not giving the chance to undergo checkup. At detection during checks of the components needing under repair or replacement, it is necessary to address to corresponding to the Head Rukovodstva where more detailed information will be given.

All following checks are subdivided into 4 categories:

   a) The inspections which are carried out from the driver's place.
   b) The checks made on the car standing on the earth.
   c) The checks made on the car raised above the ground, with freely rotating wheels.
   d) Checks of composition of exhaust gases.

In most cases more successful conducting checks will require the help of the assistant.

The checks made from the driver's place

Emergency brake (Head Brake system)

Check operation of the emergency brake, having pulled the lever in the normal, completely cocked situation. Make sure that the lever course (the number of clicks of a ratchet) is not excessive for achievement of full resistance of the brake mechanism. If the course is big, then it indicates the wrong adjustment of back brakes or incorrectly adjusted rope of the emergency brake.

At completely cocked emergency brake knock on the lever in the side directions and make sure that it at the same time does not come off. Soskakivaniye of the lever points to wear of a ratchet and a doggie. Release the lever of the emergency brake and move it to the right to the left for check of excessive wear of the axial bearing. Check reliability of fastening of support of the lever and make sure that metal of a body has no traces of excessive corrosion within 30 cm around a lever support. If support of the lever cannot be properly examined from within the car, leave this check on the following stage of work under the car.

Foot brake (Head Brake system)

Make sure that the brake pedal is in good shape without visible defects such as excessive wear of the axial plug, damage or breakage of the case of a pedal. Examine also whether there are no traces of leak of brake fluid on a pedal, a floor or rugs which would indicate damages of laying on the main brake cylinder.

Squeeze out a brake pedal at first slowly, and then quickly, steady pressure will not keep yet. Increase effort, and then make sure that the pedal does not creep down in a floor that will indicate besides problems with the main brake cylinder. Release a pedal, wait several seconds and again squeeze out it before emergence of feeling of firm resistance. Make sure that resistance appeared at the beginning of the pedal course. In case pressure appears almost at full squeezing of a pedal, it indicates the wrong adjustment of brakes and is result of an insufficient free wheeling of a pedal of a brake. Firm resistance will not be felt in case the pedal moves with feeling of softness, it will indicate availability of air in hydraulic system and need of its full pumping.

For check of functioning of the vacuum amplifier of brakes several times squeeze out a brake pedal for vacuum removal. Leave a pedal squeezed out and start the engine. Right after start of the engine the pedal slightly will leave to a floor. If it does not occur, then existence of leaks in vacuum hoses of the amplifier of brakes or malfunction of the block of the vacuum amplifier is possible.

Steering wheel and steering column (Head Podvesk and steering)

Examine a steering wheel on existence of breakage or a weak point of a nave, spokes or a rim. Move a steering wheel to the right, to the left, up and down the relation to a steering column. Make sure that the steering wheel does not dangle on a column, existence of a side play indicates wear of shliyets of a column or weakening of a fixing nut of a steering wheel. Continue to move a steering wheel in the same order, turning it slightly to the right-to the left. Make sure of lack of the abnormal movement of the steering wheel indicating excessive wear of the top persistent bearing of a steering column, the universal hinge (hinges) or the flexible coupling.

Windshield and mirrors (Head Body works)

On a windshield there should not be cracks or other damages which strongly block the review to the driver or prevent normal work of a screen wiper. Are admissible only insignificant are erose from gravel blows. Any brelka, souvenirs and other jewelry should not close the review to the driver.

The mirror of a rearview has to be reliably fixed, is not damaged and to give in to adjustment. The side mirror on a door of the passenger is not subject to check except for cases when the internal mirror of a rearview cannot be used, for example, in minibuses with deaf back walls.

Seats and seat belts (Head Body works)

The following checks are applicable to all seat belts forward and back. Forward seat belts usually hold only the top part of a trunk, knee belts are not applied. On back seats seat belts of various look can be applied.

Check reliability of all fastenings of seat belts

Carefully examine seat belt material regarding detection of cuts and traces of serious attritions or wear. In case a belt of inertial type, completely extend a belt from a drum and examine a condition of material of a belt on all its length.

Clasp and undo a belt, having made sure that the lock mechanism reliably holds a belt and if necessary easily releases it. In case a belt of inertial type, make sure that the returnable mechanism reliably drags a belt into place at its otpuskaniye.

Make check of reliability of all fastenings of belts, access to which is possible without removal of a decorative covering or other components in interior of the car. Emergence of traces of strong corrosion or deformation of the case of the car in a radius of 30 cm from any point of fastening of a belt can be the reason of a zabrakovka of the car at technical inspection. Access, and even visual survey of some fastenings of belts, cannot be carried out from within the car. In this case further check has to be made under the car. If any elements of the mechanism of seat belts are fixed on forward sitting, then support of a seat have to be considered as fastening for a seat belt and to be subject to the same checks at survey.

Front seats have to be reliably fixed so that there could not be their unexpected movement, and backs have to be blocked in vertical position.

Doors (Head Body works)

All doors have to open and be closed easily as from within, and outside of the car and it is reliable to be blocked when locking.

Electric equipment (Head Sistema of electric equipment)

Include ignition and press a horn. The horn has to make the pure, loud sound which is well heard by other participants of traffic. Application of the gongs, sirens and two-tones established not fabrichno, inadmissibly.

Check work of screen wipers and windscreen washers of a windshield. Windscreen washers have to make an equal stream of liquid under sufficient pressure, and nozzles have to be adjusted so that streams of liquid got to the top part of glass.

Involve at the same time windscreen washers and screen wipers and make sure that brushes of screen wipers purify glass without spreading of dirt on it. Brushes have to wipe effectively glass so that to the driver the sufficient review opened as forward on the road, and on the parties around the car. If glass remains polluted or is not purified properly, then before providing the car to technical inspection, it is necessary to replace brushes of screen wipers.

Squeeze out a foot brake (at the included ignition where it is necessary) and, having used the help of the assistant, make sure that back stoplights burn. At an otpuskaniye of a foot brake stoplights have to go out. At refusal of one of stoplights it is necessary to check whether the lamp fused and whether the electric contact on the boss of a lamp or near it is rather reliable. If both stoplights do not work, then the fused safety lock, the faulty or incorrectly adjusted switch of stoplights, and also quite possible burn-out of both lamps can appear a cause of defect. If stoplights do not die away at a pedal otpuskaniye, then the reason most likely consists in malfunction of the switch.

The checks made on the car standing on the earth

Identification numbers of the car

Forward and back registration plates of the car have to be in good shape, are reliably fixed and easily readable. Letters and figures have to be correctly placed on the area of registration plate, and between groups of figures and groups of numbers there has to be, at least, twice a bigger interval, than between the letters or figures consisting in groups.

Identification number of the car on the shildik which is under a cowl has to be well distinguishable. Identification numbers are checked during survey.

Electric equipment (Head Sistema of electric equipment)

Include marker lights and make sure that were lit as both lobbies, and both back marker lights, and also illumination of registration plate. Check whether lenses and reflectors are reliably fixed and whether there are no damages on them. It is especially important for back marker lights where the crack or damages of a lens can lead to punching of white color that is inadmissible. Lenses should not be excessively polluted, both outside, and from within as it is the reason of decrease in intensity of a luminescence and can create a hindrance at assessment of a road situation other drivers.

Include headlights and carry out an inspection of functioning, both near, and driving beam. Intensity of that and another has to be identical. The dim luminescence any of headlights can be a consequence of bad grounding or strong corrosion of an internal reflector. Examine lenses of headlights regarding detection of cracks or damage from blows of stones. Any damages of lenses of headlights can create a hindrance at the movement of the car. Remember that any lighting has to join at the first turning on of the switch. Percussion and potryakhivany headlights or fire for its inclusion is inadmissible.

Headlights have to be adjusted so that at inclusion of passing beam not only not to blind other participants of traffic, but also to properly light the road to the driver. Adjustment of headlights can be checked only with use of the special optical equipment, thus, if you have a doubt in correctness of adjustment of headlights, then it is desirable to make professional check and if necessary adjustment before providing the car on technical inspection.

Include ignition and involve indexes of turns. Indexes of turns have to radiate the yellow light, well visible as in front, and behind the car, and have to make one-two flashes a second. During the work of indexes of turns the repeater on the dashboard at the same time has to function. Inclusion of dimensions or stoplights should not influence work of indexes of turns. If such influence is available, then the reason usually lies in bad grounding in blocks of back lamps. Similarly make check of functioning of emergency signals which have to work, both at included, and at the switched-off ignition. Examine lenses regarding detection of cracks and damages as it was described above.

Check work of back foggy lamps. Official requirements are imposed only to work of the foggy lamp established from the driver. The foggy lamp has to be reliably fixed and radiate steady equal red light. Also the control lamp has to work at the dashboard or the switch of an emergency signal.

Foot brake (Head Brake system)

Check the mechanism of a manual tomoz regarding detection of an attrition or breaks of a rope, and also reliability of fastening of drafts

In a motive compartment examine brake tubes regarding detection of leaks, corrosion, fragility of fastening, cuts, protertost or other damages. Check the main brake cylinder and the block of the vacuum amplifier of brakes for leaks, reliability of fastening of their support and emergence of excessive corrosion in the neighborhood of support. The tank of the main brake cylinder has to be reliably fixed and if it is made of translucent material, then liquid in it has to be between the top and lower tags of level.

Turn a steering wheel if it is necessary so that to provide survey of the right forward flexible brake hose.

Provrte flexible brake hoses regarding detection of cracks or damages of material of a hose

Attentively examine a hose regarding detection of cracks or emergence of signs of damage of rubber material of which the hose is made. Violation of structure of material of a hose especially well is noticeable at easy bending of a hose, especially carefully it is necessary to examine places where the hose puts on on the metal union. Turn a steering wheel against the stop to the left and then back against the stop to the right, at the same time make sure that the hose does not adjoin to a disk, the tire or any of details of steering or the mechanism of a suspension bracket. When pressing by the assistant a pedal of a brake examine a hose regarding a vspuchivaniye and leak of brake fluid under pressure. Now repeat checks with the left forward brake hose. At detection of any signs of damage of hoses the hose has to be immediately replaced.

Steering mechanism and suspension bracket (Head Podvesk and steering)

Let your assistant turn a steering wheel to the right and to the left in such limits that the steering mechanism only began to transfer the movement of a steering wheel to forward wheels of the car. At the same time the excessive side play indicates wear of hinges of a steering column, wear or weak fastening of the coupling of accession of a steering column to the steering mechanism, or unreliability of fastening, the wrong adjustment or wear of the most steering mechanism. Generally speaking, the admissible side play for cars with steering of rack type is a side play of 1.3 cm, and for cars with the worm steering mechanism - 7.6 cm.

For determination of size of a side play, wheel bearings and components of a suspension bracket strongly shake a wheel

Let your assistant will rotate a steering wheel slightly stronger so that forward wheels of the car only began the turn. At the same time make full survey of all connections, hinges, drafts, fastenings and joints of the steering mechanism. Any components with signs of wear, damage, a bend or unreliable fastening have to be replaced or are properly adjusted. On the cars equipped with system of hydrostrengthening of a wheel it is also necessary to make check of reliability of fastening of the pump of system of hydrostrengthening, a state and adjustment of a tension of a driving belt of the pump, a condition of connecting hoses regarding detection of leaks or damages, and correctness of functioning of system. Additional checks can be made later on the poddomkrachenny car when the sufficient space for work under the car is provided.
Make sure that the car costs exactly and has the correct road gleam (clearance). Make sure that the gap between components of a suspension bracket and buffer limiters of blow provides a full speed of a suspension bracket at blows.

Shock-absorbers (Head Podvesk and steering)

Press a corner of the car and then release it. If the shock-absorber is in the normal state, then the corner of the car will rise and then will be established in normal situation. If the shock-absorber does not provide the noticeable damping effect and the car continues to shake, then it indicates defect of the shock-absorber and not readiness of the car for passing of technical inspection. Repeat the procedure of check for each corner of the car. The jammed shock-absorber is also the reason of unavailability of the car to checkup passing.

Exhaust system (Head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems)

Check a condition of the exhaust system, paying special attention to support (it is specified by an arrow)

Start the engine and while your assistant stops up an opening of an exhaust pipe, check all system regarding detection of leaks which signs are emergence of the rhythmical, hissing sound around a leak source. Make sure of overall performance of the muffler, having compared the sound made by your car to a sound of other car of the same type. At detection of damage or malfunction of elements of the exhaust system it is necessary to make its repair with use of the patented set for repair of exhaust systems or any similar method.

The checks made on the car raised above the ground with freely rotating wheels

Cock the emergency brake, then to a poddomkratta forward and back parts of the car and strongly prop up them by means of the axial props established in the corresponding points of the lower part of the car. Establish props so that they did not make contact with suspension bracket elements. Make sure that wheels do not concern the earth, and the steering wheel can be turned to the right and to the left against the stop.

Steering mechanism (Head Podvesk and steering)

Examine cuffs of hinges of equal angular speeds regarding detection of damages

Examine rubber cuffs of a steering rack regarding detection of cuts, leak of lubricant or weakening of fixing clips. If the car is equipped with system of hydrostrengthening of a wheel, check liquid hoses, tubes and connections regarding detection of damages, protertost and leaks. Also check steering system for detection of jamming, the hard course, loss of forelocks or blocking devices, and also signs of excessive corrosion on the case in a radius of 30 cm from any point of accession of components of steering system.

Let your assistant will turn a steering wheel on the left against the stop, then to the right against the stop. Make sure that steering turns softly without effort and without breakthroughs and that details of the steering mechanism, including disks and tires of wheels do not adjoin at turn to flexible or rigid hoses or tubes of the brake system or other elements of a body of the car.

On the car with steering of all four wheels components of steering of back wheels are exposed to similar check. However switching off of management of back wheels with blocking of their situation directly forward is admissible provided that the control system of forward wheels reliably functions.

Forward and back suspension brackets and wheel bearings (Head Podvesk and steering)

Since the right forward wheel, undertake a wheel in points on 3 and for 9 hours and strongly shake a wheel. At the same time pay attention to a side play in wheel bearings, spherical hinges and support and connections of a suspension bracket. Pay also attention to serious damages of rubber or metal casings of all basic plugs, and also to a bend, deformation or excessive corrosion of any components of a suspension bracket. Make sure available all forelocks, lock washers or other blocking devices of all support and connections of a suspension bracket, and also make sure of lack of strong corrosion of a body of the car in a radius of 30 cm from points of accession of any components of a suspension bracket.
If there was a suspicion on existence of an excessive side play in axial points of components, suspicion can be confirmed by introduction of the big screw-driver or other suitable tool between a support and connection of a component and a component podrychazhivaniye this tool. Existence of an excessive side play indicates wear of the axial plug, its fixing bolt or the support.

Now clasp a wheel in points of 12 and 6 hours and repeat the check described above. Rotate a wheel, any breakthroughs and jamming at its rotation indicate the available or coming malfunction of the bearing.
Repeat above the described checks with the second forward wheel and then with both back.

Springs and shock-absorbers (Head Podvesk and steering)

On cars with suspension brackets like McPherson examine assembly of a rack regarding detection of serious leaks, corrosion or strong pointed corrosion of a rod of the piston or damages on a casing. Check also reliability of fastening of reference points.

If screw springs are established, make sure that the ends of springs correctly enter spring saddles that on a surface of springs there is no strong corrosion, there are no cracks, breaks and other damages.

If the car is equipped with laminated springs, make sure that all sheets of a spring are intact that the axis is reliably connected to each spring and that there is no wear or damages of nested spring support, plugs and spring earrings.

In general, the checks described above, are applicable to suspension brackets of other types such as suspension brackets with the torsion bars, etc. In all cases make sure of reliability of fastening of all support and connections, of lack of signs of excessive wear, corrosion, cracks, deformation or other damages of any components or plugs, and also of lack of liquid leaks and damages of hoses or tubes (for a suspension bracket of hydraulic type).
Examine shock-absorbers regarding detection of serious leak of liquid.

(For some types of shock-absorbers small release of liquid is the normal phenomenon and should not cause serious concern). Examine fixing plugs or connections regarding detection of excessive wear, and also check whether there are no damages of the case of the block.

Power shafts (Head Power shafts)

At the maximum angle of rotation of the operating wheels rotate each forward wheel in turn and examine cuffs of hinges of equal angular speeds regarding detection of cracks or damages. Make sure also that cuffs are reliably fixed by clips or fixture of other type.

Continuing to rotate a wheel, be convinced that a power shaft of a straight line and without signs of damages. Check of a power shaft of the second wheel is similarly made.

Brake system (Head Brake system)

If it is possible to make it without dismantling, check brake shoes regarding wear, and also a condition of brake disks. Make sure that material of frictional slips is not worn-out excessively, on disks there are no traces of breaks, corrosion, scratches or excessive wear.

Carefully examine all rigid brake tubes under the car and flexible hoses in a back part of the car. You examine regarding excessive corrosion, a protertost and reliability of fastening of tubes, and also on vspuchivaniye traces under pressure, protertost, cracks or damages of flexible hoses.

Examine brake supports or boards of brake drums regarding detection of the leak of brake fluid indicating malfunction of sealing laying of the corresponding components.

Slowly rotate each wheel while the assistant squeezes out and then again releases a pedal of a foot brake. At the pressed pedal the wheel should not rotate, and at the released pedal rotation has to be free. It is possible to make check of efficiency of brakes without the special equipment, however (if road and local conditions allow) the road test showing whether takes away the car when braking aside can be made.

Examine the mechanism of the emergency brake regarding detection of a protertost or break of a rope, excessive corrosion and wear or unreliability of fastening of drafts. While your assistant cocks and releases the emergency brake, make sure that the mechanism works, carrying out braking of each required wheel and it is released completely, without jamming.

Toplivnaya and exhaust systems (Head Toplivnaya and exhaust systems)

Examine the fuel tank, fuel tubes, hoses and connecting unions (including unions on the pump, the filter and the fuel distributive highway). All components have to be reliably connected and should not have leaks. The cover of a mouth of the gulf of fuel has to be the corresponding type and densely close a mouth.

On all length examine the exhaust system regarding detection of damages, breaks or lack of suspended elements, reliability of pipe connecting collars. Make sure of lack of strong corrosion and a rust on all length of the exhaust system.

Wheels and tires (Head Podvesk and steering)

Carefully, in turn examine an internal and external wall of each tire, and also all surface of a protector. On the surface of tires there should not be cuts, gaps, cones, swellings, office of a protector, and also stratification and an exposure of a cord because of other damages. Make sure that the tire board correctly sits down in a rim of a wheel and that the nipple is in good shape and it is correctly established in a disk. Rotate a wheel and make sure that on it there are no excessive bends or damages, especially in the field of a rim edge.

Make sure that tires, the required standard size are installed on the car and that on each axis tires of one type and one size are installed.

(Use of the spare tire "space saver" is inadmissible). Tires have to be pumped up with the required pressure.

By means of suitable adaptation measure tire protector depth. According to the state requirements the drawing of a protector has to be clearly distinguishable on all surface of a protector and have depth at least 1.6 mm, at least, on 3/4 width of a protector. A certain wear on internal or outer side of the tire is allowed, however this wear has to be in the form of an equal ring and the drawing of a protector has to be looked through. Any excessive wear indicates the wrong adjustment of forward wheels which has to be made before tires finally wear out. Further information on characteristic wear of tires and adjustment of forward wheels see in the corresponding heads.

Corrosion of a body (Head Body works)

Make check of a condition of all case of the car regarding detection of corrosion in areas of all loaded joints. According to technical requirements, these areas are all sections of boxes of the chassis, thresholds, cross beams, racks, a suspension bracket, steering and brake systems, and also support of fastening of seat belts. Any corrosion which seriously reduces thickness of metal of these areas leads them to easing, and when passing checkup it is considered inadmissible. At detection of such corrosion professional car repairs will be required.

Corrosion or damage of a body as a result of which on the surface of the car acute angles or zakraina are formed also is inadmissible.

Check of composition of exhaust gases

Warm the engine up to the normal working temperature and make sure that all preliminary conditions for carrying out measurement of turns of idling and composition of mix (the system of ignition is in good shape, the element of the air filter is pure, etc.) are executed.

Before starting any measurements, increase engine turns to 2500 rpm and hold them within 20 seconds. Again reduce turns to turns of idling and visually examine the smoke which is coming out an exhaust pipe. If turns of idling are obviously excessive and if leaves an exhaust pipe densely - blue or clearly visible black smoke within more than 5 seconds, the car is considered faulty. By eye it is possible to tell that emergence of blue smoke indicates oil combustion (wear of laying of rods of valves, the directing plugs of valves, piston rings or sleeves of cylinders), black smoke indicates incomplete combustion of fuel (the element of the air filter, too rich mix, or other damages of fuel system is polluted).
If turns of idling and exhaust smoke are in admissible limits, then conducting further check will require the analyzer of exhaust gases measuring structure of CO and HC. In the following paragraph it is claimed that such tool can be hired or lent - the house mechanic should not spend money for acquisition of such tool. However in case of its absence the corresponding inspection can be carried out in any workshop or a garage.

Contents ABOUT (mix)

According to the current legislation the maximum level WITH at idling turns for the cars operated since August, 1983 makes 4.5%. Requirements for contents FROM exhaust gases imposed by manufacturers of cars lie in the same limits.

If the SO level cannot be reduced to admissible level (on condition of the fact that the system of ignition and a fuel supply system are in good shape) the reason perhaps lies in malfunction of system of injection of fuel.
It can turn out that the SO level lies in limits, admissible at passing of technical inspection, however above the manufacturer of the car, admissible on Specifications.

Maintenance of HC

If contents WITH lies in admissible limits, then the maintenance of HC should not exceed 1200 particles on one million. If the car does not undergo this testing on idling turns, then check can be repeated at 2000 rpm; if in this case the NANOSECOND level lies within 1200 particles on 1000000 or below, then check is considered passed.

The excessive maintenance of NANOSECOND can be a consequence of combustion of oil or that is more probable, not full combustion of fuel. The possible malfunctions leading to excessive issue of NANOSECOND include the following:

   a) The candle gap or bad condition of spark plugs is incorrectly adjusted.
   b) The corner of an advancing of ignition or injection of fuel is incorrectly filled (where it is necessary).
   c) A low compression in the engine.

Pay attention that the NANOSECOND excessive level in exhaust gases, can be a consequence of malfunction of the catalytic converter (if it is established).